Dental caries

- a disease characterized by progressive destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth.

Кариес зубов

Pathogenesis of dental Caries

The plaque microflora damages the organic base of the enamel, which thus loses the ability to fix the mineral substrate. A carious defect is formed. Resistance to caries is determined by the enamel structure, which depends on both the conditions of tooth formation and the state of local immunity of the oral cavity.

Symptoms and courseOf dental caries

Caries is distinguished by the sharpness of the flow and the depth of the lesion. The patient complains of pain when cold, sour, sweet food enters the carious cavity. Removing the stimulus interrupts the pain. There are no spontaneous pains. In the initial stage, there is a dirty gray or brown spot on the enamel surface. With surface caries, the defect is within the enamel, its bottom is rough; with medium caries, the defect is spread beyond the dentin-enamel junction; with deep caries, it captures all the layers of dentin.

In acute flow, the tissues involved in the carious process are dirty gray, softened, the carious focus is irregular in shape, its edges are covered. A number of teeth are affected. In the most acute course, more teeth are affected, each tooth has several cavities.

In chronic cases, the affected tissues are pigmented, dense, and their edges are relatively smooth. Individual teeth are affected.

Of dental caries

Excision of affected tissues (enamel, dentin), formation of the cavity and restoration of the shape and function of the tooth. Excision is made with dental bores of different shapes. This intervention requires premedication and analgesia (the most effective – conductor). The carious defect is filled with a filling.

Treatment of initial caries does not require tissue excision and is achieved by remineralization – application or electrophoresis of 1% sodium fluoride solution or proprietary remineralizing drugs. In acute forms, a diet rich in proteins, mineral salts, and vitamins is shown. Preparations of calcium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, vitamins A, D, Bj, B5, B6. sodium Nucleinate 0.1 g inside 1 time a day, sodium fluoride inside at a dose of 4-6 mg/day, ultraviolet irradiation.

ForecastOf dental caries

Without treatment, caries is necessarily complicated by pulpitis. Treatment of chronic forms of filling is reliable, acute-effective only with additional pathogenetic therapy.

PreventionOf dental caries

Measures to increase the resistance of teeth to caries and fight against the formation of soft plaque: consumption of milk and dairy products, fortification, oral fluoride medications, hard food and tooth cleaning with toothpastes.

The fight against acute infectious and concomitant diseases and General health measures are important. It is extremely important to introduce fluoride inside with drinking water (1 mg / l), in the form of tablets, etc. Local fluoridation of teeth (pastes, solutions, lacquers).