On the importance of fats and carbohydrates in the diet
Fats and carbohydrates in the diet play the same role: they deliver energy to the body. Therefore, these substances can replace each other within certain limits. In terms of calories, 1 g of fat corresponds to about 2.5 g of carbohydrates.
The food industry uses a variety of fats: a) animals-cow's oil (butter, ghee), lard (beef, pork and others); b) vegetable oils - sunflower, cotton, soy, hemp, linseed and others; C) mixed - margarine, mixed fats.
Vegetable oils in cooking find a wide variety of applications. For example, only vegetable oils can be used to prepare some cold vegetable and fish dishes (salads, vinaigrettes, fish in marinade, vegetable and mushroom caviar). In addition, they are appropriate for frying fish, potatoes, pies, vegetable cutlets (cabbage, beetroot, carrot), onions, roots and flour for filling soups. We should also mention the role of vegetable oil in the preparation of sour dough: here it often replaces butter.
Mixed fats are a mixture of vegetable and animal fats. In cooking, they serve as substitutes for various types of fat.
Margarine is made by mixing a mixture of thoroughly purified vegetable fats, partially converted to a solid state, with fermented milk. When churning, the milk is distributed in fat in the form of tiny drops. And after pressing the finished mixture, a product similar in taste to butter is obtained.
Carbohydrates include substances such as sugar and starch.
There is a lot of starch in wheat flour (65-75%), pasta and cereals. Slightly less of it is found in bread (up to 40 %) and legumes. Different varieties of potatoes contain approximately 17% starch (with variations from 12 to 25%).
There are several types of sugar: beet, grape, fruit and milk. The sweetest of them is fruit. It is 1.5 times sweeter than beetroot and more than 2 times sweeter than grape. The least sweet sugar is milk sugar.
Refined sugar and granulated sugar are almost pure beet sugar. Fruit and grape sugar are part of honey in almost equal amounts-37% and 36%. Pure grape sugar (glucose) is produced in the industry as a white fine-crystalline powder.
The composition of fruits, berries and vegetables mainly includes three types of sugar: beet, fruit and grape.
The total sugar content in different products is very different. For example, in grapes, the sugar level reaches 25%, in melons-14%, in watermelons-10%, in beets and carrots-12%.
Milk sugar is present in milk in an amount of 4.5 %.
A daily diet with a calorie content of 3,000 calories, in addition to 100 g of protein, should contain approximately 60 g of fat and 500 g of carbohydrates.