- inflammation of the gingival margin.
Types Of Gingivitis
It can be generalized when the gum is affected in the area of all teeth in one or both jaws , and localized if the gum is affected in the area of one or more teeth. There are catarrhal, hypertrophic, ulcerative ( ulcerative-necrotic ) gingivitis .
Etiology and pathogenesis of Catarrhal gingivitis
Tartar, soft plaque, Smoking, chemical irritation, fusospirillary infection.
Catarrhal gingivitis develops as a reaction to irritation, hypertrophic is caused by endocrine disorders usually in the pubertal period and during pregnancy. Ulcerative gingivitis is especially often associated with immunodeficiency States of the body and violation of the trophic tissue of the gums. Are important deficiencies With certain medications (difenin, etc.).
Symptoms and course of Catarrhal gingivitis
Acute catarrhal gingivitis is characterized by hyperemia and edema of the gums, bleeding, pain, burning; chronic – cyanosis, edema, loosening of the gums. Microbial plaque and hard dental deposits are common. In hypertrophic gingivitis, the gums are dense, overgrown and partially covering the crowns of the teeth, more on the vestibular side. False pathological pockets and subgingival stone are formed.
Often there are anomalies in the position of the teeth. On the radiograph, clear changes in the interdental septum are not detected. With ulcerative gingivitis, there is a turbidity of the gingival papillae, their soreness. The gingival margin has the appearance of a dirty-gray, easily removable necrotic film. The exposed surface is dark red and bleeding. The lesion is of various lengths with uneven, scalloped edges. Sharp soreness, inability to eat. There is a fetid smell from the mouth, drooling. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged and painful. Body temperature up to 38-39 °C. Lethargy, headache. Ulceration may extend to the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
Treatment of Catarrhal gingivitis
Elimination of irritating factors. In chronic catarrhal gingivitis-irrigation of the mouth with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and 1% sodium chloride solution. Hypertrophic gingivitis requires surgical treatment (curettage, gingivectomy). Sclerosing therapy is possible. In ulcerative gingivitis, the decayed tissue is removed under infiltration anesthesia. Surface treatment with 2% hydrogen peroxide solution, trypsin, chymotrypsin. Immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed. With pronounced General phenomena – antibiotics, heart medications.
Prognosis of Catarrhal gingivitis
Acute catarrhal gingivitis ends after 7-10 days, chronic requires persistent treatment. Hypertrophic gingivitis often recurs, patients need orthodontic treatment, usually completely cured, sometimes there are relapses.
Prevention of Catarrhal gingivitis
Elimination of local irritating factors, mainly Tartar. Systematic care for the oral cavity.
Etiology and pathogenesis of Localized gingivitis
Injury when chewing, using a toothbrush, or a toothpick.
It is associated with food getting stuck between the teeth when the interdental contact point is violated.
Symptoms and course of Localized gingivitis
In acute localized gingivitis, the pain increases when eating. The papilla is hyperemic, swollen. With chronic – a feeling of unease, pain that passes after removing food stuck between the teeth. The edge of the gum is swollen, cyanotic, may be atrophied, ulcerated, and bleeds easily. There are approximal defects or incomplete fillings on the teeth. Radiographic: the interdental septum is preserved.
Treatment of Localized gingivitis
Restoration of the contact point between the teeth by filling or tabs.
The prognosis of Localized gingivitis
The prognosis with rational treatment is favorable.
Prevention of Localized gingivitis
Prevention-rational treatment of approximal caries. Without treatment, the inflammatory process in the gum progresses, localized periodontitis develops .